Unit 02

Unit 2:
Working with Data
Unit 2: Assignment #1 (due before 11:59 pm Central on THU JUN 18):

  1. To learn how we classify different types of data, read Poldrack’s (2020) Chapter 2 “Working with Data: What Are Data?”
  2. To deepen your understanding of continuous and discrete measurement, read Intellspot’s (n.d.). infographic “Discrete vs Continuous Data.”
  3. Identify examples of continuous and discrete measurements you have all around you by collecting the following data:
    1. the number of t-shirts you currently have in your home, apartment, dorm room, or wherever you have lived the past week,
    2. the length of your foot (in inches, using fractions for parts of an inch, e.g., 9 1/4 inches),
      • If you don’t have access to a ruler or tape-measure use CustomFit’s (n.d.) Foot Size Calculator to determine the length of your foot based on your shoe size.
    3. the number of pillows you have in your home, apartment, dorm room, or wherever you have lived the past week,
    4. your height (in feet, using decimals for parts of a foot, e.g., 6.625 feet),
    5. the number of forks you have in your home, apartment, dorm room, or wherever you have lived the past week,
    6. the amount of sleep you got last night (in hours, using a decimal for time less than an hour, e.g., 7.75 hours).
  4. For each of the six measurements you made in step c, above, in addition to writing down the data (e.g., 35 t-shirts), write down whether the measurement is continuous or discrete.
  5. Next, identify from your own life 1 more example of a discrete measurement AND 1 more example of a continuous measurement.
    1. Each additional example must be unique, meaning you may NOT use the examples provided in Poldrack’s (2020) textbook chapter, Intellspot’s (n.d.) infographic, or the 6 examples listed in step c above.
    2. After identifying these two examples — 1 of a discrete measurement and 1 of a continuous measurement — collect the data (measure the measurement!) just like you did with the six examples in step c. above.
  6. Go to the Unit 2: Assignment #1 Discussion Board and make a new Discussion Board post in which you
    1. define, in one sentence and using your own words, what it means for a measurement to be discrete;
    2. define, in one sentence and using your own words, what it means for a measurement to be continuous;
    3. list each of the 4 discrete measurements you collected, using statements such as
      • First Discrete Measurement: The number of t-shirts I currently have = 35 t-shirts
      • Second Discrete Measurement: … = …
      • Third Discrete Measurement: … = …
      • Fourth Discrete Measurement: … = …
    4. list each of the 4 continuous measurements you collected, using statements such as
      • First Continuous Measurement: The length of my foot in inches = 9 1/4 inches
      • Second Continuous Measurement: … = …
      • Third Continuous Measurement: … = …
      • Fourth Continuous Measurement: … = …

Unit 2: Assignment #2 (due before 11:59 pm Central on THU JUN 18):

  1. To prepare for an assignment in Unit 3, begin collecting the following data from 5 different adults:
    1. the Person’s 3 letter Initials of their name (e.g. CMA); if the adult doesn’t have three names, use X for the initial of their middle name (e.g., CXA);
    2. their Age (in years using only whole numbers, no fractions or decimals);
    3. their Height (in inches using only whole numbers, no fractions or decimals);
    4. the Month of their Birthday; and
    5. their Favorite Flavor of Ice Cream.
  2. Turning back to Unit 2, to become familiar with the terms reliability and validity:
    1. Read an excerpt of Statistics by Rachel’s (2011) blog post, “Reliability vs. Validity.” BTW, Rachel was a student when his blog post was written.
      • Write down the brief definition Rachel gives for reliability
      • Write down the brief definition Rachel gives for validity.
      • Write down the example Rachel gives for a measurement that would have poor reliability.
    2. Read an excerpt of Sommer’s (no date) article, “Introduction: Reliability and Validity.”
      • Write down the brief definition Sommer gives for reliability.
      • Write down the brief definition Sommer gives for validity.
      • Write down the example Sommer gives for a measurement that would have poor validity.
    3. Read an excerpt from Statistics How To (no date) article, “Reliability and Validity in Research.”
      • Write down the brief definition Statistics How To gives for reliability.
      • Write down the brief definition Statistics How To gives for validity.
      • Write down the example Statistics How To gives for a measurement that would have poor validity.
    4. Read an excerpt from Middleton’s (2020) article, “Reliability vs Validity: What’s the Difference?
      • Write down the brief definition Middleton gives for reliability.
      • Write down the brief definition Middleton gives for validity.
      • Write down the three ways Middleton tells us that reliability differs from validity.
    5. Read Poldrack’s (2020) Chapter 2, “Working With Data: What Makes a Good Measurement?”
      • Write down the brief definition Poldrack gives for reliability.
      • Write down the two ways Poldrack tells us that we can measure reliability.
      • Write down the brief definition Poldrack gives for validity.
      • Write down the three ways Poldrack tells us that we can measure validity.
  3. After reading these excerpts and Poldrack’s chapter:
    • To make sure you understand what reliability is, write a definition that incorporates the definitions you read but your definition should use only your own words.
    • Think of and write down two more examples of measurements that would have poor reliability.
    • To make sure you understand what validity is, write a definition that incorporates the definitions you read but your definition should use only your own words
    • Think of and write down two more examples of measurements that would have poor validity.
    • To make sure you understand the difference between reliability and validity, make sure you can explain the classic “bullseye” illustration of reliability versus validity, which Poldrack also includes in his chapter.
  4. To demonstrate what you have learned about reliability and validity, create a teaching document that could be used to teach others what reliability is; what validity is; some good examples of each; and the difference between the two. You do not have to teach the information to other people, but you do have to create a teaching document.
    1. First, choose your audience. Your choices are (1) middle-school students (age 12 to 14 years) or (2) older adults (over age 60).
    2. Second, choose your medium. Your choices are (1) a PowerPoint; (2) a handout or Infographic; or (3) a comic strip (e.g., this comic strip from The Nibs).
    3. Third, remember that your teaching document should capture the information you have learned (including definitions and examples) and should be relevant to the audience you chose.
    4. Fourth, save your document as a PDF named YourLastname_PSY-210_ReliabilityValidity.pdf (no .pptx, .ppt, .doc, .docx, or any other file types except for .pdf will be graded).
    5. Fifth, learn how to test the size of your PDF by reading through this handout.
      • Then, test the size of your PDF.
      • If the size of your PDF is too large to email to yourself, reduce the size of your PDF by following the suggestions in this handout.
  5. Go to the Unit 2: Assignment #2 Discussion Board and make a new Discussion Board post in which you
    1. First, state which audience you chose to make a teaching document for.
    2. Second, explain in one sentence why you chose that audience.
    3. Third, attach your teaching document PDF. To attach your PDF,
      • Look underneath the textbox where you typically type (or paste into) the Discussion Board, and you will see the “Attach” tool; it is the word “Attach” preceded by a paperclip icon.
      • Click on the “Attach” tool. Browse to the .pdf file on your computer and select your .pdf file.
      • Upload your .pdf file.
      • Then click on “Post Reply.”
      • Do not attach your .pdf file by using the “Files” menu option on the left-hand side of the Discussion Board. Instead, use only the “Attach” tool that is found underneath the Discussion Board text box.
      • Be sure that your PDF is named YourLastname_ PSY-210_ReliabilityValidity.pdf

Unit 2: Assignment #3 (due before 11:59 pm Central on FRI JUN 19):

  1. Watch Andrews’ (2020) lecture video “When Continuous Measurements Become Discrete.” [a transcript of the video is available here].
  2. After watching the lecture video, imagine the following situation. You are chatting with a friend toward the end of the term. Your friend tells you that they’ve earned an AB in one of their courses, but they’re only 1 point (or 1%) away from earning an A. Your friend asks for your advice as to whether they should contact their professor and ask their professor for a grade bump of 1 point (or 1%).
  3. Write a hypothetical email, of at least 200 words, to your friend answering their question about whether they should contact their professor to ask for a grade bump.
    1. Begin your hypothetical email with “Dear Friend,”
    2. Explain to your friend the difference between a continuous measurement and a discrete measurement.
    3. Give your friend an example, from the lecture video, of a continuous measurement becoming discrete; and
    4. Based on all you have learned about the challenges of continuous measurements becoming discrete, advise your friend whether to ask for a grade bump.
  4. Go to the Unit 2: Assignment #3 Discussion Board and make a new Discussion Board post in which you post your hypothetical email message to your friend.

Unit 2: Assignment #4 (due before 11:59 pm Central on FRI JUN 19):

  1. Learn how to take a screenshot on any device.
  2. Take The Big Five Personality Test
    1. Answer as honestly as you can.
    2. Save the description of your scores (either as a screenshot or as a copy/paste/save into Word doc, Google doc, or other app).
    3. You will need to have these scores to complete this assignment.
    4. IMPORTANT: You do NOT need to create an account. Instead, click on “No thanks, just show my results,”
  3. Take 16Personalities’ (2020) “Personality Type” test.
    1. Again, answer as honestly as you can.
    2. Again, save the description of your scores (either as a screenshot or as a copy/paste/save into Word doc, Google doc, or other app).
    3. You will need to have these scores to complete this assignment.
  4. Take Personality Lab’s (n.d) “Find your Hogwarts House: The Harry Potter Sorting Hat Personality Test.”
    1. Again, answer as honestly as you can.
    2. Again, save the description of your scores (either as a screenshot or as a copy/paste/save into Word doc, Google doc, or other app).
    3. You will need to have these scores to complete this assignment.
  5. Take BuzzFeed’s (2020) “Everyone Has a Kind of Sushi That Matches Their Personality – Here’s Yours” test.
    1. Again, answer as honestly as you can
    2. Again, save the description of your scores (either as a screenshot or as a copy/paste/save into Word doc, Google doc, or other app).
    3. You will need to have these scores to complete this assignment.
  6. After completing all four personality tests, retake two of the personality tests a second time.
    1. You can choose which two tests you retake, but you must retake two of the tests.
    2. Again, answer as honestly as you can.
    3. Again, save the description of your scores (either as a screenshot or as a copy/paste/save into Word doc, Google doc, or other app) for EACH personality test.
  7. After you’ve completed all four personality tests and you’ve retaken two of the tests, write yourself some notes about each test.
    1. What types of questions did the test ask?
    2. Did the questions seem relevant to what the test was designed to measure?
    3. Did your results match your own conception of your personality?
    4. For the two tests that you took twice, were your results exactly the same, similar, or different the two times you took each test?
  8. Go to the Unit 2: Assignment #4 Discussion Board and make a new Discussion Board post of at least 200 words in which you do the following for each of the four personality tests you took;
    1. summarize the description of the scores you received from each of the personality tests;
    2. discuss the face and content validity of each of the tests you took (do you think they are valid measures of what they intended to measure?); and
    3. discuss the test-retest reliability of the two tests that you took twice.

Unit 2: Assignment #5 (due before 11:59 pm Central on SUN JUN 21):

  1. Starting in the next unit (Unit 3), you will begin having synchronous, text-based Group Chats in small groups of two or three students at the end of each unit. Each Group Chat will last one hour.
  2. Find out which Chat Group you are in by looking at this Chat Group List. NOTE: This is a password-protected PDF, which will be available two weeks before the assignment is due; however, because of adds and drops, be sure to frequently refresh the page. To read the PDF, you’ll need to type in a password.
    1. The password is the email subject heading you’re supposed to use in this course when you email a question.
    2. Capitalization, punctuation, and spacing matter for this password.
    3. If you’re initially unable to open the PDF, and you’re sure you’re inputting the correct password:
      • Try a different browser. Some browsers are set to a default level of security that interferes with opening password-protected files. Using a different browser (which is a good go-to solution for a lot of Internet-related problems) should help.
      • Or save the PDF onto your own computer, and open the PDF there (using Adobe Reader, Preview, or another PDF reader), rather than trying to open the PDF in your browser.
  3. After you’ve found out which Chat Group you’re in, arrange with the other members of your Chat Group a time when all of you can meet online for one hour to hold your small group text-based Chat for the next Unit (Unit 3: Assignment #5).
    1. You can contact other members of your Chat Group through their wisc.edu email addresses, which you can obtain by hovering over or clicking on any student’s name in the Chat Group List. (Clicking on a student’s name should generate a new email message to that student.)
    2. Or members of your Chat Group may decide to share phone numbers for texting to arrange Chat Group dates and times.
    3. Remember, when you’re emailing (or texting) to arrange Chat Group dates and times to be sure to “Reply All.” By remembering to use “Reply All,” you won’t inadvertently leave anyone off your communications for arranging your meeting date and time.
    4. Before deciding on a date and time to meet for your Unit 3 Group Chat, understand that ALL members of the Chat Group MUST have completed Unit 3: Assignment #1, Unit 3: Assignment #2, Unit 3: Assignment #3, and Unit 3: Assignment #4 PRIOR to your Chat Group meeting.
  4. Identify the one member of your Chat Group whose last name comes last alphabetically in your Chat Group.
    1. That member is responsible for setting up the Group Chat room according to the instructions in the Course How To (under the topic “How To Set Up a Group Chat Room on Your Laptop” or “How To Set up a Group Chat Room on Your Mobile Device”).
    2. That member of your Chat Group should go ahead and set up the Group Chat room now, to make sure it will be ready for your Group Chat in the next Unit.
  5. ALL members of the Chat Group need to do the following:
    1. Learn from the Course How To:
      • “How To Participate in a Group Chat on Your Laptop” OR “How To Participate in a Group Chat on Your Mobile Device;”
      • that at least one member of the Chat Group must participate in the Group Chat using the browser Chrome on their laptop (rather than on their mobile device);
      • what to do if your Chat Group agrees on a date and time for your Chat, but one Chat Group member wants to reschedule or hasn’t joined the Chat within 15 minutes after the agreed upon time;
      • that all Group Chats are required to last ONE FULL HOUR. During that entire hour, the Group Chat should be the ONLY thing you’re doing. If you finish early, then practice the assignment more or discuss further implications.
    2. Go to the Unit 2: Assignment #5 Discussion Board and make a new post in which you tell us
      • the name of the Chat Group you are in (e.g., The Standard Deviates: Group X);
      • the first and last name of the student in your Chat Group who is responsible for setting up the Group Chat room;
      • the first and last name of the student in your Chat Group will be responsible for using the browser Chrome on their laptop (not a mobile device) during your Group Chat; and
      • what date AND time your Chat Group will meet for your Unit 3: Assignment #5 chat.
    3. Check the points you’ve earned in the course by following the instructions for “How To Check the Points You’ve Earned in this Course” in the Course How To. If you have any questions about the points you’ve earned, email Chelsea Andrews.
    4. Record a typical Unit entry in your Course Journal for the current Unit, Unit 2.

Congratulations; you have finished Unit 2! Onward to Unit 3!